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Electronics for CNC apparates

Last update: 31/07/2015

The THB6064 (or TB6564 according to production countries) is one of the newest integrated circuits dedicated to the motion control produced by Toshiba. It is characterized by all common protections (short circuit, overcurrents, temperature, back EMF).


During 2012, Toshiba has released a really interesting new bipolar stepper motor driver: theTB6600hq(hg). It can be considered, in our opinion, an enhanced version of the 'old' TB6560ahq because, while maintains the same efficiency of the old one, it is characterized by some peculiarities. We can find, infact: 

Almost always the working current of a stepper motor is set by a simple voltage (Vref) applied on a pin of the driver/controller i.c. This voltage, usually, is taken from the +5V necessary to the logic of the same i.c. and it is set by a voltage partitioner built using a couple of resistors. We'll try now to calculate the values of such resistors:


For bipolar motors upto 2-3 amp/phase there are a lot of different full bridges amplifiers, drivers or integrated components, upto 5A we can use a couple of L6203 (for instance), but for bigger motors, very probably, an external full bridge mosfet driver has to be considered a must.

Here follows a schematic regarding a full bridge driver made by single mosfets to be connected to an L297 (or similar).

opto breakoutQuite often, to prevent damages to the personal computer in case of failures, in a cnc system is present a breakout board. This board is more professional compared to the previous one and has been created for those driver without any form of protection. 

The LS7290 is a production of phases generator IC for stepper motors by LSI-CSI. It can be used to create unipolar or bipolar stepper motor controller, using external mosfet bridges or integrated bridges. It's features are:

This article regards a simple (and cheap) ruler for CNC machines (or any other robotic appliance) based on a Microchip 16F887 pic. It captures, from a parallel port, the same step-dir signals to be sent to the cnc interface. There are no particular reasons about the choice of such pic but we have to consider that the 16F887 is cheaper than the 'old' 16F877, it is fast enough and has pins and internal functions necessary to satisfy all our needs.

One of the most important points, building a cnc machine, is the project of a well dimensioned power supply. Normally we need of two different voltages: the first (usually 18-40V or more) to power the motors and another, usually 5V, to power the logic of the controllers.

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